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|Average Seed / oz||Seed / 100' Row||Average Yield / 100' Row||Days to Harvest|
|Planting Season||Ideal Soil Temp||Sun||Frost Tolerance|
|Spring/Fall||40-80°F||Full Sun||Very Tolerant|
|Sowing Method||Seed Depth||Direct Seed Spacing||Seeds Per Packet|
|Transplant or Direct Seed||1/4"||3-6"||325|
|Mature Spacing||Days to Sprout||Production Cycle||Seed Viability|
Endive grows easily from seeds in well-drained soil, in a sunny place. Endive thrives in cooler temperatures and requires ample moisture to stay healthy.
Choose a spot that will get at least 4 hours of sun per day. Endive plants thrive in full sunlight but they can also tolerate partial shade, especially in warmer climates. They will, however, struggle if planted in a spot with full shade. Choose a spot in your garden free of obstructions that may block out light. Endive grows best in well-drained soil. Aerate your soil by working an organic material such as perlite, vermiculite, or compost into it. Plant seeds directly in the ground 2-4 weeks before the last expected frost. Endive thrives in cooler temperatures. For best results, plant it in the late winter or early spring. Aim to plant the seeds 2-4 weeks before the last frost is expected to occur. Scatter seeds by hand in evens rows on top of the soil, keeping your rows to a distance of at least 18”. This will accommodate the size of mature endive.
Cover seeds with no more than ¼” soil. Anything more and they will not be able to push through to the surface. Water well and keep the soil moist while you wait for germination which you should see within 7 days. Thin your seedlings when they have their first true leaves to space 8” apart in your 18” rows. Water around the base of your plants every 1-3 days as needed. Endive requires a lot of moisture to grow properly. Give your plants water every few days as required to keep the soil moist and prevent it from drying up. Be sure to pour water around the bottom of the plants and not on top of the leaves. Watering the leaves may cause them to rot, eventually killing the plants themselves.
You can start harvesting after about a month when they are only a few inches tall. Snip with sharp scissors outside leaves, leaving the plant in tact to continue growing. When the plant is full grown (about 12 weeks), you can cut the whole head with a sharp knife.
Endive, Cichorium endivia
Pollination, self/insect; Life Cycle, biennial; Isolation Distance, ¼ mile
A self-pollinating biennial, Endives will often bolt to seed in the first season if exposed to cool temperatures and short days. Interestingly, endive is related to chicory, but cannot be crossed by chicory though chicory can be crossed by endive. Endives will cross with each other though, so leave space between varieties then harvest the seeds in the same manner as lettuce.